At GW:

•Reporting Bias-related Incidents at GW:


•Coates, Ta-Nehisi. The Case for Reparations. [online] The Atlantic; 2014. Available:
•Ford, C, et al. Critical Race Theory, Race Equity, and Public Health: Toward Antiracism Praxis. American Journal of Public Health, 1 Sept 2010. Vol 100 No. S1
•Jackson, A. O’Brien M., and Fields, R. (2020). Anti-Racism and Race Literacy: A Primer and Toolkit for Medical Educators. Differences Matter at UCSF
•Jones, C (2000). Levels of Racism: A Theoretical Framework and a Gardener’s Tale.
•Kendi, Ibram X. How to Be an Antiracist. First Edition. New York: One World, 2019.
•McIntosh, P. (2003). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In S. Plous (Ed.), Understanding prejudice and discrimination (p. 191–196)




  • Cheng, S. M. (2017, May 10). Stop, Talk, Roll: How to Deal with Tough Communication Exchanges in the Medical Workplace. Retrieved from
  • DallaPiazza, M., Padilla-Register, M., Dwarakanath, M., Obamedo, E., Hill, J., & Soto-Greene, M. L. (2018). Exploring Racism and Health: An Intensive Interactive Session for Medical Students. MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, 14, 10783.
  • Darley, J. M., & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4, Pt.1), 377–383.
  • Hortensius, R., & de Gelder, B. (2018). From Empathy to Apathy: The Bystander Effect Revisited. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(4), 249–256.
  • National Museum of African American History and Culture (2021). Talking about Race.
  • Nelson, J., Dunn, K., Paradies, Y., Pedersen, A., Sharpe, S., Hynes, M and Guerin, B. (2010). Review of bystander approaches in support of preventing race-based discrimination. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation (VicHealth). Carlton, Australia.
  • Nelson, K., Dunn, K.M., and Paradies, Y. (2011). Bystander Anti-racism: A Review of the Literature. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 11, 1. pp. 263—284. Accessed at
  • Sotto-Santiago S, Mac J, Duncan F, Smith J. “I didn’t know what to say”: responding to racism, discrimination, and microaggressions with the OWTFD approach. MedEdPORTAL. 2020;16:10971.
  • Souza, T. J. (2018), Responding to Microaggressions in the Classroom: Taking A.C.T.I.O.N., online article in Faculty Focus Premium, Madison, WI: Magna Publication; Ganote, C. M., Cheung, F. Souza, T. J. (2015), Don’t Remain Silent! Strategies for Supporting Yourself and Your Colleagues via Microresistance and Ally Development, featured article in POD Diversity Council White Paper; Learning Forum SuperCamp (2016), accessed 2018
  • Tatum, B. D. (2000). The complexity of identity: “Who am I?.” In Adams, M., Blumenfeld, W. J., Hackman, H. W., Zuniga, X., Peters, M. L. (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, sexism, anti-semitism, heterosexism, classism and ableism (pp. 9-14). New York: Routledge.